Vortex is an individual-based simulation of deterministic forces as well as demographic, environmental and genetic stochastic events on wildlife populations. It can model many of the extinction vortices that can threaten persistence of small populations.
Robert Lacy and JoAnna Kelly at Chicago Zoological Society
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Lacy, R.C. 2000.
Structure of the VORTEX simulation model for population viability analysis.
Ecological Bulletins 48:191-203.