SCAT (Smoothed and Continuous AssignmenTs) implements a Bayesian statistical method for estimating allele frequencies and assigning samples of unknown (or known) origin across a continuous range of locations, based on genotypes collected at distinct sampling locations. In brief, the idea is to assume that allele frequencies vary smoothly in the study region, so allele frequencies are estimated at any given location using observed genotypes at near-by sampling locations, with data at the nearest sampling locations being given greatest weight.
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S K Wasser, A M Shedlock, K Comstock, E A Ostrander, B Mutayoba, and M Stephens. Assigning African elephant DNA to geographic region of origin: applications to the ivory trade. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 41:14844-14852, 2004.