Jul 082013



GENEHUNTER-IMPRINTING is a modification of the GENEHUNTER software package . It allows for a parametric multi-marker linkage analysis of dichotomous traits caused by imprinted genes – that is, of traits showing a parent-of-origin effect. By specification of two heterozygote penetrance parameters, paternal and maternal origin of the disease allele can be treated differently in terms of probability of expression of the trait. Therefore, a disease model which accounts for imprinting includes four penetrances instead of only three. For an analysis with a four-penetrance imprinting model, the command ‘imprinting on’ needs to be entered at the beginning of a GENEHUNTER-IMPRINTING session. Otherwise, LOD scores are calculated under a standard three-penetrance model, in the same way as with the original GENEHUNTER.

GENEHUNTER-MODSCORE is a further extension of GENEHUNTER-IMPRINTING.It can handle autosomal or pseudoautosomal loci. GENEHUNTER-MODSCORE allows for a MOD-score analysis, in which parametric LOD scores are maximized over the parameters of the trait model, i.e., the penetrances and disease allele frequency. By this means, the disease-model parameter space is explored in an efficient way, and so researchers do not have to rely on a single trait model when performing a parametric linkage analysis.

GENEHUNTER-TWOLOCUS is a modification of the GENEHUNTER software package. The program performs parametric and nonparametric multi-marker linkage analysis of dichotomous traits with two autosomal diallelic disease loci. It uses two unlinked marker maps with one disease locus linked to each map.


Institute of Genetic Epidemiology (IGE)




  • Linux/WIndows





Strauch K, Fimmers R, Kurz T, Deichmann KA, Wienker TF, Baur MP (2000):
Parametric and nonparametric multipoint linkage analysis with imprinting and two-locus-trait models: application to mite sensitization.
American Journal of Human Genetics 66:1945-1957.

Mattheisen M, Dietter J, Knapp M, Baur MP, Strauch K (2008):
Inferential testing for linkage with GENEHUNTER-MODSCORE: the impact of the pedigree structure on the null distribution of multipoint MOD scores.
Genetic Epidemiology 32:73-83

Dietter J, Spiegel A, an Mey D, Pflug HJ, Al-Kateb H, Hoffmann K, Wienker TF, Strauch K (2004):
Efficient two-trait-locus linkage analysis through program optimization and parallelization: application to hypercholesterolemia.
European Journal of Human Genetics 12:542-550


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