Discriminative HMMs (Hidden Markov models) predicts localizations using motifs that are present in a compartment but absent in other, nearby, compartments by utilizing an hierarchical structure that mimics the protein sorting mechanism.
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IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform. 2011 Mar-Apr;8(2):441-51.
Discriminative motif finding for predicting protein subcellular localization.
Lin TH, Murphy RF, Bar-Joseph Z.