CLUMP is a program designed to assess the significance of the departure of observed values in a contingency table from the expected values conditional on the marginal totals. The present implementation works on 2 x N tables and was designed for use in genetic case-control association studies, but the program should be useful for any 2 x N contingency table, especially where N is large and the table is sparse. The significance is assessed using a Monte Carlo approach, by performing repeated simulations to generate tables having the same marginal totals as the one under consideration, and counting the number of times that a chi-squared value associated with the real table is achieved bythe randomly simulated data. This means that the significance levels assigned should be unbiased (with accuracy dependent on the number of simulations performed) and that no special account needs to be taken of continuity corrections or small expected values.
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Sham PC & Curtis D. 1995.
Monte Carlo tests for associations between disease and alleles at highly polymorphic loci.
Ann Hum Genet. 59: 97-105.